Part of the cache of Arshama-related material is made up of clay sealings, which were (in all likelihood) used to seal and authentify the parchment letters. Most of them bear a seal which must be Arshama’s; many of the clay bullae still contain traces of the strings used to close the letters— or even the strings themselves (a vivid yellow, perhaps from the use of dyes).

The seal images use Reflectance Transformation Imaging technology (RTI). RTI is a photographic method that allows the surface relief of an object to be viewed as if a light were angled on the object.

These RTI images show the obverse and reverse side of the seals. You can use the thumbnails below or the links on the right to navigate. You can also read more on RTI images.

The descriptive catalogue and the drawings of the bullae by Mark Garrison and Deniz Kaptan will appear in Arshama and Egypt: The World of an Achaemenid Prince (in preparation).

Sigill. Aram. I


Sigill. Aram. II


Sigill. Aram. III


Sigill. Aram. IV


Sigill. Aram. V


Sigill. Aram. VI


Sigill. Aram. VII


Sigill. Aram. VIII


Acknowledgements: Dr Graeme Earl, James Miles and colleagues, Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton.
The Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD) and Klaus Wagensonner of Creating a Sustainable Cuneiform Digital Library (CSCDL) did the imaging.

All images are copyright Bodleian Libraries and are free for private use and teaching provided you acknowledge the source. A full copyright statement and a permissions form for all other uses, including publication are available. Higher resolution images are available from the Bodleian Library Imaging Services. | Cookie Policy | Ownership, Liability and Use